Nursing in Japan

Nursing in Japan did not develop until the end of the nineteenth century. Initially introduced only in Tokyo in the late 1860s, small schools utilizing Western models were being opened by the late 1880s. In response to disaster relief, the Japanese Red Cross became an integral part of nursing development. By 1915, nurse registration had been established and public health nurses began working throughout the country. Nursing universities were established in the twentieth century and regulations were passed to develop standards for training and public health.

Care of the sick in Japan was primarily done in the home by untrained family members until the end of the nineteenth century. Nursing first emerged in Tokyo in 1869, when the Tokyo Imperial University opened a small school for nurses. Little training was given in how to care for the sick, but students were instructed in hygiene and sanitary conditions for hospitals. In 1883, foreign missionaries opened two small nursing schools, based on Western models to give theoretical training to nurses. Two years later, a doctor opened a school in Kyoto and the Canadian Episcopal Mission began a school in Kobe. The Kyoto school was begun by Linda Richards, who was sent by the American Board of Missions to organize a training school at the Doshisha Hospital. The first class of four nurses graduated in 1888.

In 1887, the Japanese Red Cross (JRC) was founded and by 1890 had begun teaching and recruiting nurses for training. Though their nurses were still studying when the Sino Japanese War broke out, the JRC decided to send trainees to help with relief efforts. From 1894, JRC Nurses served in numerous conflicts helping with the wounded, including in the Boxer Rebellion (1900), the Russo-Japanese War (1904), World War I and the Japanese intervention in Siberia (1919). The JRC Nurses’ training program required three years of study with the first year dedicated to theory, including courses on anatomy, bandaging, disinfection, hygiene, instruments, women’s health, obstetrics, as well as basic assistance of surgery and health treatment and the latter two years involved in practical training. Completion of the course required a final examination before diplomas were given and additional six months of training could qualify nurse candidates as head nurses. Because the JRC was under government control, their hospitals spread to all the major cities and a uniformity of training made the organization a leader in nursing development.

Nursing was not an established part of Japan’s health care system until 1899 with the adoption of the Midwives Ordinance. The Registered Nurse Ordinance was passed in 1915 which established a legal substantiation to registered nurses all over Japan. In the 1920s, the government began investigating the need to increase the educational requirements for nurses. Up to that time, job training was the only requirement and there was no prerequisite for a high school education to enter training at most hospitals. In 1927, St. Luke’s International Hospital became the first college of nursing in the country and based its training program on the one offered at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. The program required students to be graduates of a Government High School, complete three years of standard training, and a fourth year of specialization.

The first nursing association in Japan was founded in 1929 by Take Hagiwara as the Nursing Association of the Japanese Empire. By 1933, the organization had around 1500 members from throughout Japan and joined the International Council of Nurses (ICN). During World War II the Public Health Nurse Ordinance (1941) and National Medical Care Act (1942) were passed and re-affirmed in 1948 with passage of the Public Health Nurses, Midwives and Nurses Act. It established educational requirements, standards and licensure. In 1946, the Japanese Nursing Association was created, merging the Japanese Midwife Society, Japanese Public Health Nurses Association and the Nursing Association of the Japanese Empire into one umbrella organization.

There has been a continued effort to improve nursing in Japan. In 1952 the first university courses on nursing were introduced, 1957 requirements for assistant nurses were introduced, in 1965 regulations were passed for nurses working night-shifts, and throughout the 1990s several legislative acts expanded training and employment protections for nurses. In 1992, the Law for Securing Nursing Personnel created new university programs to address the aging population of Japan, establish a critical scientifically based approach to training rather than a pragmatic one, unify training and licensing requirements and overall improve the image of the field. In 2009, the Public Health Nurses, Midwives and Nurses Act was amended allowing those who had graduated from a 4-year college to be eligible to take the nursing examination, revising course requirements, and making newly-graduated training mandatory for nursing personnel.

Japan recognizes four types of nurses: Public Health Nurses, Midwives, Registered Nurses and Assistant Nurses.

Public health nursing is designed to help the public and is also driven by the public’s needs. The goals of public health nurses are to monitor the spread of disease, keep vigilant watch for environmental hazards, educate the community on how to care for and treat themselves, and train for community disasters.

Midwife nurses are independent of any organization. A midwife takes care of a pregnant woman during labor and postpartum. They assist the mother with breastfeeding, caring for the child, and related tasks.

Individuals who are assistant nurses follow orders from a registered nurse. They report back to the licensed nurse about a patient’s condition. Assistant nurses are always supervised by a dentist, licensed registered nurse or physician.

Requirements of nursing education in Japan are that candidates have completed twelve years of basic academic study and then three years of basic nursing education. Public health nurses and midwives require a minimum of one additional year of specialized study. After completing their studies, students must pass the national licensing examination and obtain a license from the Minister of Health, Labour, and Welfare in the case of nurses, or from the prefectural governor, for nurse assistants. Foreign nurses who wish to work in Japan are required to pass the licensing examination and obtain a Japanese nursing license.

To become a registered nurse in Japan, candidates must first obtain a high school degree and then either enroll in a nursing university for four years and earn a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN); attend a junior nursing college for three years, earning an Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN); or study at a nursing training school for three years and obtain a diploma. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) regulates the curriculum of the colleges and universities, while the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare’s Division of Nursing regulates nursing diploma programs. The two Ministries jointly establish core curriculum, though individual schools may vary on additional requirements. The basic course study must include courses on: anatomy, adult health, basic nursing, children’s health, disease and recovery studies, gerontological nursing, health support and social systems, home care nursing theory, maternity, mental health, nursing integration, psychiatric nursing, scientific thinking and the understanding of humans, life and society. Both theoretical study and clinical practice are required.

Upon completion of studies a national examination administered by the Division of Nursing of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare is required. Licenses are issued for the nurse’s lifetime and require no renewal or continuing education. For nurses who wish to become Public Health Nurses or Midwives pill remover, post-graduate studies are required. Colleges, junior colleges, nurse training schools or universities offer courses for the additional training which must be for a minimum of one year. Additionally master’s degrees are offered at some universities. As of 2010, all nurses are required to complete postgraduate clinical training.

The certification of nurse specialists is not legally specified in Japan, though the practice is widely accepted. The Japanese Nursing Association (JNA) certifies nurses in three categories: Certified Nurse, Certified Nurse Administrator and Certified Nurse Specialist. All three levels of certification require that the nurse pass the national nursing examination as well as a certification test administered by the JNA. Certifications must be renewed every five years.

Certified Nurses (CN) are required to take six months training in cancer and chemotherapy nursing, emergency care, hospice care, intensive care nursing, wound, ostomy, and continence nursing, and pain management nursing, after completion of their basic nursing licensing. As of July 2015, nearly 16,000 CNs were working in Japan in various specialties including cancer care, chronic care, dementia nursing, diabetes nursing, dialysis nursing, emergency care, heart care, infection control, infertility nursing, neonatal care, rehabilitative care, respiratory care, and other specialized fields.

Certified Nurse Administrators (CNA) are required to complete a master’s program in management at a graduate school or university or a certification from a nurses training education program.

Certified Nurse Specialists (CNS) are required to complete a master’s program for specialized fields, including Cancer Nursing, Child Health Nursing, Chronic Care Nursing, Community Health Nursing, Critical Care Nursing, Family Health Nursing, Gerontological Nursing, Home Care Nursing, Infection Control Nursing, Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing or Women’s Health Nursing, after obtaining their national licensing. In addition, certification requires a minimum of five years clinical experience.

Other professional groups also provide certification for clinical specialties such as community health, diabetes, disaster nursing, emergency nursing, intractable illness, nursing administration, and psychiatric nursing. These organizations predominantly emerged in the 1990s. They include the Japan Visiting Nursing Foundation, which was founded in 1994 to create and improve home care services for the elderly; the Japanese Family Nursing Society, which emerged in 1994 to focus on the education, practices and development of theory for family nurse practitioners; the Japanese Nursing Diagnosis Association and the Japan Society of Nursing Diagnosis focus on nursing diagnosis. Additional professional organizations include the Federation of Nursing Colleges and Association of Nurses, the International Nursing Foundation of Japan, the Japanese Midwives Association, and the Japanese Society of Nursing Research.

Until 2015, nurses in Japan were required to work under the guidance of physicians. They were not allowed to diagnose conditions or prescribe medications without a doctor’s directive. Socio-cultural custom giving doctors higher perceived social status and nurses the role of caretaker, led to nurses’ lack of autonomy. In October 2015, the Act on Public Health Nurses, Midwives and Nurses was amended to allow nurses who had received specific training to act as nurse practitioners and intervene in certain situations without awaiting a physician’s decision.

The training curricula requires completion of 315 study hours of common subjects and 15 to 72 study hours of subjects for specified categories of medicine. Participants must attend both lectures and participate in practical applications. Upon completion of the coursework, applicants must receive a certificate of completion. They may then perform specific medical interventions based upon those described in procedure manuals prepared by physicians.

There is currently a shortage of nurses in Japan, in part due to the expanding population of elderly. Other reasons for the deficit in nursing applicants are poor working conditions, an increase in assigned workloads, the low social status of nurses, and the cultural idea that married women quit their jobs for family responsibilities. On average, Japanese nurses will make around 280,000 yen a month. Until 2000, nurses made up about 4.5% of the women’s work force in Japan with almost two-thirds having nursing diplomas and only one percent having a BSN degree. The majority of nurses were female with only around three percent of the field being male. The largest segment of nurses are in their 30s and 40s with the average age being 41 in 2016 and hospitals are the major employer (61%) of nursing staff, followed by private clinics (21%).

After 1992, Nurse Centers were created in each prefecture by the Act on Assurance of Work Forces of Nurses and Other Medical Experts. These Centers provide placement, job training and recertification, if desired. They monitor nurses who are unemployed and support those who may wish to re-enter the work force. The most common reason for nurses to leave the work force is to raise a family, though heavy responsibilities, irregular shift work, long working hours, night shift duty

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, and poor working conditions/treatment accounted for part of the turnover. Government programs to improve working environments have been on-going since 2011.

One of the older unions that relates to nursing is the Japanese Federation of Medical Workers Union, which was created in 1957. It is a union that includes physicians as well as nurses. This organization was involved with the creation of the Nursing Human Resource Law.

Nursing by country (category)


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Im 19. Jahrhundert wuchs die Stadt dank der Seidenindustrie, durch die über 400 Arbeiter beschäftigt wurden. Heute gibt es ein Seidenmuseum vor Ort, das an jene Zeit erinnert.

Die Rebflächen des Ortes liegen im Weinbaugebiet des südlichen Rhônetals. Die Weine dürfen unter den Herkunftsbezeichnungen Côtes du Rhône sowie der qualitativ strikteren Côtes du Rhône Villages vermarktet werden.

Aleyrac | Allan | Ancône | Arpavon | Aubres | Aulan | Ballons | Barret-de-Lioure | La Bâtie-Rolland | La Baume-de-Transit | Beauvoisin | La Bégude-de-Mazenc | Bellecombe-Tarendol&nbsp runners water carrier;| Bénivay-Ollon | Bésignan | Bézaudun-sur-Bîne | Bonlieu-sur-Roubion | Bouchet | Bourdeaux | Bouvières | Buis-les-Baronnies | Chamaret | Chantemerle-lès-Grignan | La Charce | Charols | Châteauneuf-de-Bordette | Châteauneuf-du-Rhône | Chaudebonne | Chauvac-Laux-Montaux | Clansayes | Cléon-d’Andran | Colonzelle | Comps | Condillac | Condorcet | Cornillac | Cornillon-sur-l’Oule | La Coucourde | Crupies&nbsp history of football uniforms;| Curnier | Dieulefit | Donzère | Espeluche | Eygalayes | Eygaliers | Eyroles | Eyzahut | Ferrassières | La Garde-Adhémar | Les Granges-Gontardes | Grignan | Izon-la-Bruisse | Laborel | Lachau | La Laupie | Lemps | Malataverne | Manas | Marsanne | Mérindol-les-Oliviers | Mévouillon | Mirabel-aux-Baronnies | Mollans-sur-Ouvèze | Montauban-sur-l’Ouvèze | Montaulieu | Montboucher-sur-Jabron | Montbrison-sur-Lez | Montbrun-les-Bains | Montélimar | Montferrand-la-Fare | Montfroc | Montguers | Montjoux | Montjoyer&nbsp battery operated lint remover;| Montréal-les-Sources | Montségur-sur-Lauzon | Nyons | Orcinas | Le Pègue | Pelonne | La Penne-sur-l’Ouvèze | Piégon | Pierrelatte | Pierrelongue | Les Pilles | Plaisians | Le Poët-en-Percip | Le Poët-Laval | Le Poët-Sigillat | Pommerol | Pont-de-Barret | Portes-en-Valdaine | Propiac | Puygiron | Réauville | Reilhanette | Rémuzat | Rioms | Rochebaudin | Rochebrune | Rochefort-en-Valdaine | Rochegude | Roche-Saint-Secret-Béconne | La Roche-sur-le-Buis | La Rochette-du-Buis | Roussas | Rousset-les-Vignes | Roussieux | Roynac | Sahune | Saint-Auban-sur-l’Ouvèze | Saint-Ferréol-Trente-Pas | Saint-Gervais-sur-Roubion | Saint-Marcel-lès-Sauzet | Saint-Maurice-sur-Eygues | Saint-May | Saint-Pantaléon-les-Vignes | Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux | Saint-Restitut | Saint-Sauveur-Gouvernet | Sainte-Euphémie-sur-Ouvèze | Sainte-Jalle | Salettes | Salles-sous-Bois | Saulce-sur-Rhône | Sauzet | Savasse | Séderon | Solérieux | Souspierre | Suze-la-Rousse | Taulignan | Teyssières | Les Tonils | La Touche | Les Tourrettes | Truinas | Tulette | Valaurie | Valouse | Venterol | Verclause | Vercoiran | Vers-sur-Méouge | Vesc | Villebois-les-Pins | Villefranche-le-Château | Villeperdrix | Vinsobres

ronnie lott

ronnie lott pourrait être décrit en un mot: passionné.l’un des joueurs les plus durs jamais à tenir le terrain

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, lott jouait chaque avec un guerrier comme attitude.
un retour à une autre époque, il a essayé d’imiter l’ex – bone jarring grands comme dick butkus, ray nitschke et sam plupart conviendront qu’il a réussi, et ses 14 années de près sans jouer lui a mérité le droit d’être contre le jeu est meilleur.
lott, un consensus toutes saisons dans le junior et senior américain à l’université de californie du sud, enregistrée 250 aborde quatre ans durant sa carrière collégiale.
les troyens’ 1980 mvp, il conduit la pac ten avec huit interceptions sa dernière saison.en conséquence, les san francisco 49ers lui ont fait leur choix en 1981 no 1 projet est devenu la pierre angulaire de défense quatre champions du super bowl.
lott (née en 1959) est la trousse complè avait la vitesse, la force et la connaissance de la partie qui le distinguent de la défense.
ses réalisations en tant que pro sont cours de sa carrière avec les 49ers (1981 – 1990), los angeles raiders (1991 – 1992)

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, et les jets de new york (1993 – 1994), il a dirigé par deux fois la ligue des se classe cinquième sur la liste avec 63 vole plus d’ a dépassé les 1000 carrière face à mark en 1993, et qu’il avait quatre saisons d’au moins 100 plaquages.
le polyvalent arrière défensif gagné 10 pro bowl invitations à trois postes différents… demi défensif, défenseur, et fort de la sécurité.
un étudiant du jeu, lott avait le don de pouvoir sentir la direction une pièce allait prendre et puis le perturber.
« pour briser une pièce, “il a dit,” tu dois voir ça au ralenti. cependant il a vu ça, ronnie lott jouait dur, joué propre et joué avec passion.
pour en savoir plus sur le football plus grands, voir:

Kyaw Hlaing

Bogalay Kyaw Hlaing (Burmese: ဘိုကလေး ကျော်လှိုင်, pronounced: [bòɡəlé tɕɔ̀ l̥àiɴ]; 28 September 1914 – 13 April 1996) was a Burmese artist. Due to his mastery of the technique of painting clouds, he was sometimes called “Cloudy Kyaw Hlaing”.

Kyaw Hlaing was born on 28 September 1914 in Bogalay (in the present-day Ayeyarwady Region), son of wealthy parents with an interest in art. He studied art at Aid National Middle School. At the age of 18, with Ba Kyi, Aye Maung and Thein Han, he became a student under the master Ba Nyan how to use a lemon press, who had learned European oil painting techniques in London. After the Second World War he entered a national painting competition, winning prizes in the still life, figure and landscape categories, and the overall gold prize. He found work as an art instructor in Bogalay, later moving to Yangon where he taught in high schools for many years.

Kyaw Hlaing belonged to the second generation of Burmese painters who studied under Ba Nyan in the 1930s. After Myanmar gained independence in 1948, he continued to practice the European painting techniques he had learned during the colonial period. Kyaw Hlaing exhibited at many art shows in the 1960s, and his paintings were collected by many art lovers. The majority of his work was in watercolor, this oeuvre of pieces counting in the many hundreds. His oil work was less prolific, and the number of paintings is not known precisely: nearly a score of these works have emerged in the hands of Yangon art dealers in recent years. Kyaw Hlaing quoted 80 oil paintings as an estimate of the number of oil works he had done in his lifetime.

Kyaw Hlaing’s watercolor works, which earned him the nickname “Cloudy”, were rendered with skies full of clouds executed in many tones of white, often with portions of the clouds left unpainted to create a searing white given by the background watercolor paper. Many of his paintings are exhibited today in the New Treasure Art Gallery.

After retiring, he was appointed an instructor at the Yangon Fine Arts school, teaching third-year students. His pupils included Min Wae Aung, Zaw Zaw Aung, Hla Tun, Zaw Win Pe and Kyaw Shein. Kyaw Hlaing was a handsome man with a wiry, towering frame. Two of his students compression football jerseys, Min Wae Aung and Zaw Zaw Aung, painted portraits of him. One of these works by Zaw Zaw Aung, an ironic oil painting titled Portrait of U Kyaw Hlaing: Visit Myanmar Year 1996 (1995), was done when Kyaw Hlaing had passed the age of 80. It captured only the lower part of his body in a longyi with his withered legs crossed and his upper body hidden by a newspaper he was reading. It is in the collection of the Singapore Art Museum.

He was a calm and taciturn person with a taste for tea and cigars, always helpful to his fellow artists. He lived with his wife in a poor quarter of Yangon. He painted until his last days. He died at the age of 82 on 13 April 1996.

pourquoi votre télé afin de regarder, c’est mauvais pour votre santé

saviez – vous que netflix et excessive temps pourrait vous tuer?
une nouvelle étude montre que, dans le cas où il n’était pas évident… assis sur ton cul pendant des heures peuvent être dangereux pour votre santé.
« notre étude de cohorte prospective suggère que regarder la télévision prolongée est un important facteur de risque de mortalité par une embolie pulmonaire », les auteurs d’une étude publiée le 26 juillet 2016, l’american heart association journal circulation.
pour en savoir plus: 10 corps la sculpture exercices vous pouvez faire en regardant la télé
une embolie pulmonaire est le blocage soudain dans une artère pulmonaire, ce qui peut se produire lorsqu’un caillot de sang se déplace dans le poumon d’une veine à la jambe, selon le département américain de la santé et des services humains national heart, lung and blood institute.
en d’autres mots: un caillot bloque.
comme le montre l’étude, toutefois, le pe n’est pas une peut tuer.
le taux de mortalité du pe pour les gens regarder moins de deux heures de télévision par jour, soit 2,8 (pour 100 000).le taux grimpe à 4.8 pour les regarder deux heures et demie de presque 5 heures.le taux augmente ensuite à 8,2 pour ceux qui surveillent plus de cinq heures.
les signes et symptômes inexpliqués de pe peut inclure l’essoufflement ou d’autres problèmes respiratoires, douleur thoracique, la toux

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, expectorations de sang ou un rythme cardiaque irrégulier, en fonction des nih.
en outre, il pourrait être le signe d’une thrombose veineuse profonde (un caillot de sang qui trouve son origine dans une veine profonde dans le corps), sous forme de “gonflement de la jambe ou dans une veine dans les jambes, douleur ou sensibilité à la jambe, le sentiment d’une augmentation de la chaleur dans le domaine de la jambe qui est gonflé ou appel d’offres et la peau rouge ou décolorée la jambe touchée », l’office note.
les japonais collaborative cohort study, appelé “à regarder la télévision et le risque de décès par embolie pulmonaire chez les hommes et les femmes”, a 86024 dérivée des réponses des participants (36006 hommes et 50018 femmes) dans l’étude, qui a débuté à la fin des années 80 dans 45 régions du japon, et 110585 participants âgés de 40 à 79.
désolé pour les mauvaises nouvelles, cuites, mais tu n’aurais certainement pas être assis pour s’étend sur plus de deux heures et demie; en fait, certains experts suggèrent que tu as au moins une fois par heure.d’autres suggèrent debout et s’étendant les jambes toutes les 15 ou 20 minutes.
il y a peut – être une soirée compromis: remplaçant vos activités entre les sessions et netflix et ¨¦ mon va – t’… ou une autre activité que sprint se pomper le sang.
pour en savoir plus: pok ¨¦ mon aller sparks condition accidentelle tendance
vous êtes coupable de télé guincher?pensez – vous parfois exagérer?quelle montre vous cela?et comment voulez – vous sortir?